He served longer as a cardinal before becoming Pope than any pontiff since benedict xiii (172430). Benedict and his Polish predecessor John paul ii were the first consecutive non-Italian popes since the seven consecutive frenchmen of the avignon Papacy (130978). The last pope named Benedict was Benedict xv, an Italian who reigned from 1914 to 1922, during World War I (191418). On, time magazine"d unnamed Vatican sources as saying that Ratzinger was a front runner to succeed John paul ii should he die or become too ill to continue as pope. On the death of John paul ii, the financial Times gave the odds of Ratzinger becoming pope as 71, the lead position, but close to his rivals on the liberal wing of the church. In April 2005, before his election as pope, he was identified as one of the 100 most influential people in the world by time. While Prefect of the congregation for the doctrine of the faith, ratzinger repeatedly stated he would like to retire to his house in the bavarian village of Pentling near Regensburg and dedicate himself to writing books.
The relationship between emotion and reason
In particular, dominus Iesus, published by the congregation in report the jubilee year 2000, reaffirmed many recently "unpopular" ideas, including the catholic Church's position that "Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to men by which. 34 Ratzinger's 2001 letter de delictis gravioribus clarified the confidentiality of internal church investigations, as defined in the 1962 document Crimen Sollicitationis, into accusations made against priests of certain crimes, including sexual abuse. This became a subject of controversy during the sex abuse cases. 35 For 20 years, ratzinger had been the man in charge of enforcing the document. 36 While bishops hold the secrecy pertained only internally, and did not preclude investigation by civil law enforcement, the letter was often seen as promoting a coverup. 37 Later, as pope, he was accused in a lawsuit of conspiring to cover up the molestation of three boys in Texas, but sought and obtained diplomatic immunity from liability. 38 On, ratzinger, as prefect, notified the lay faithful and the clergy that Archbishop pierre martin Ngo dinh Thuc had incurred excommunication latae sententiae for illicit episcopal consecrations without the apostolic mandate. In 1997, when he turned 70, ratzinger asked Pope john paul ii for permission to leave faulkner the congregation of the doctrine of faith and to become an archivist in the vatican Secret Archives and a librarian in the vatican Library, but Pope john paul. 39 40 Papacy: Election to the papacy main article: Papal conclave, 2005 Benedict xvi was elected the 265th pope at the age. He is the oldest person to have been elected pope since pope Clement xii (173040).
He was promoted within the college of Cardinals to become cardinal Bishop of Velletri-segni in 1993 and was made the college's vice-dean in 1998 and dean in 2002. Just a year after its foundation in 1990 Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger joined the european Academy of Sciences and Arts in Salzburg/Austria in 1991. 32 33 Ratzinger defended and reaffirmed Catholic doctrine, including teaching on topics such as birth control, homosexuality and inter-religious dialogue. The theologian leonardo boff, for example, was suspended, while others such as Matthew Fox were censured. Other issues also prompted condemnations or revocations of rights to teach: for instance, some posthumous writings of Jesuit priest Anthony de mello were the subject of a notification. Ratzinger and the congregation viewed many of them, particularly where the later works, as having an element of religious indifferentism (. E., christ was "one master alongside others.
30 Archbishop of Munich and Freising: Palais Holnstein in Munich, the residence of Benedict as Archbishop of Munich and Freising On, ratzinger was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising. He took as his episcopal motto cooperatores Veritatis (Co-workers of the Truth) from 3 John 8, a choice he comments upon in his autobiographical work, milestones. In the consistory of the following 27 June, he was named Cardinal-Priest of Santa maria consolatrice al thesis Tiburtino by pope paul. By the time of the 2005 Conclave, he was one of only 14 remaining cardinals appointed by paul vi, and one of only three of those under the age. Of these, only he and William wakefield baum took part in the conclave. 31 Prefect of the sacred Congregation for the doctrine of the faith: Cardinal Ratzinger in Rome, main article: Joseph Ratzinger as Prefect of the congregation for the doctrine of the faith On 25 november 1981, pope john paul ii, upon the retirement of Franjo šeper. Consequently, he resigned his post at Munich in early 1982.
25 Ratzinger continued to defend the work of the second Vatican council, including Nostra aetate, the document on respect of other religions, ecumenism and the declaration of the right to freedom of religion. Later, as the Prefect of the congregation for the doctrine of the faith, ratzinger most clearly spelled out the catholic Church's position on other religions in the 2000 document Dominus Iesus which also talks about the catholic way to engage in " ecumenical dialogue". During his time at Tübingen University, ratzinger published articles in the reformist theological journal Concilium, though he increasingly chose less reformist themes than other contributors to the magazine such as Küng and Schillebeeckx. In 1969, he returned to bavaria, to the University of Regensburg and co-founded the theological journal Communio, with Hans Urs von Balthasar, henri de lubac, walter Kasper and others, in 1972. Communio, now published in seventeen languages, including German, English and Spanish, has become a prominent journal of contemporary catholic theological thought. Until his election as pope, he remained one of the journal's most prolific contributors. In 1976, he suggested that the augsburg Confession might possibly be recognised as a catholic statement of faith. 26 27 several of Benedict's former students became his confidantes, notably Christoph Schönborn, and a number of his former students sometimes meet for discussions. 28 29 he served as Vice President of the University of Regensburg from 1976 to 1977.
Emotions and, faith: The perplexing Relationship Between
At the close of the twentieth the future cardinal Ratzinger would write an introduction to a 1996 reissue of guardini's 1954 classic " The lord ". 22 Pre-papal career Academic career: Ratzinger became a professor at the University of Bonn in 1959, his inaugural lecture was on "The god of faith and the god of Philosophy". In 1963, he moved to the University of Münster. During this period, he participated in the second Vatican council (196265) and served as a peritus (theological consultant) to cardinal Frings of Cologne. He was viewed during the time of the council as a reformer, cooperating with theologians like hans Küng and Edward Schillebeeckx.
Ratzinger became an admirer of Karl Rahner, a well-known academic theologian of the nouvelle Théologie and a proponent of church reform. In 1966, ratzinger was appointed to a chair in dogmatic theology at the University of Tübingen, where he was a colleague of Hans for Küng. In his 1968 book introduction to Christianity, he wrote that the pope has a duty to hear differing voices within the Church before making a decision, and he downplayed the centrality of the papacy. During this time, he distanced himself from the atmosphere of Tübingen and the marxist leanings of the student movement of the 1960s that quickly radicalised, in the years 19, culminating in a series of disturbances and riots in April and may 1968. Ratzinger came increasingly to see these and associated developments (such as decreasing respect for authority among his students) as connected to a departure from traditional Catholic teachings. 23 Despite his reformist bent, his views increasingly came to contrast with the liberal ideas gaining currency in theological circles. 24 Some voices, among them Küng, deem this a turn towards conservatism, while ratzinger himself said in a 1993 interview, "I see no break in my views as a theologian over the years".
16 Ratzinger then trained in the german infantry. 18 As the Allied front drew closer to his post in 1945, he deserted back to his family's home in Traunstein after his unit had ceased to exist, just as American troops established a headquarters in the ratzinger household. 19 As a german soldier, he was interned in a prisoner of war camp, but released a few months later at the end of the war in may 1945. 19 Ratzinger and his brother georg entered saint Michael Seminary in Traunstein in november 1945, later studying at the ducal georgianum ( Herzogliches georgianum ) of the ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich. They were both ordained in Freising on by cardinal Michael von faulhaber of Munich. Ratzinger recalled: "at the moment the elderly Archbishop laid his hands on me, a little bird perhaps a lark flew up from the altar in the high cathedral and trilled a little joyful song." 20 Ratzinger's 1953 dissertation was.
Augustine and was titled The people and the house of God in Augustine's Doctrine of the Church. His habilitation (which qualified him for a professorship) was on Bonaventure. It was completed in 1957 and he became a professor of Freising College in 1958. Encounter with Romano guardini In his early twenties, he was deeply influenced by the thought of Italian German Romano guardini 21 who taught in Munich 1946 to 1951 when Ratzinger was studying in Freising and later at the University of Munich. The intellectual affinity between these two thinkers, who would later become decisive figures for the twentieth-century Church, was preoccupied with rediscovering the essential in Christianity. Guardini with his 1938 tome "The Essence of Christianity while ratzinger penned "Introduction to Christianity three decades later in 1968. Guardini inspired many in the catholic social-democratic tradition, particularly the communion and Liberation movement in the new evangelization encouraged under the papacy of Polish Pope john paul.
What is the relationship between art and ethics?
His sister, maria ratzinger, who never married, managed Cardinal Ratzinger's household until her death vietnamese in 1991. At the age of five, ratzinger was in a group of children who welcomed the visiting Cardinal Archbishop of Munich with flowers. Struck by the cardinal's distinctive garb, he announced later that day that he wanted to be a cardinal. He attended the elementary school in Aschau am Inn, which was renamed in his honour in 2009. 13 Ratzinger's family, especially his father, bitterly resented the nazis, and review his father's opposition to nazism resulted in demotions and harassment of the family. 14 Following his 14th birthday in 1941, ratzinger was conscripted into the hitler youth —as membership was required by law for all 14-year-old German boys after March 1939 15 —but was an unenthusiastic member who refused to attend meetings, according to his brother. 16 In 1941, one of Ratzinger's cousins, a 14-year-old boy with Down syndrome, was taken away by the nazi regime and murdered during the Action T4 campaign of nazi eugenics. 17 In 1943, while still in seminary, he was drafted into the german anti-aircraft corps as Luftwaffenhelfer.
His resignation became effective on 28 February 2013. He is the first pope to resign since pope Gregory xii in 1415, and the first to do so on his own initiative since pope celestine v in 1294. As pope emeritus, benedict retains the style of review His Holiness, and the title of Pope, and continues to dress in the papal colour of white. He was succeeded by pope Francis on, and he moved into the newly renovated monastery mater Ecclesiae for his retirement on In his retirement, benedict xvi has made occasional public appearances alongside pope Francis. Contents Early life: main article: Early life of Pope benedict xvi the birth house of Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger in Marktl, bavaria joseph Aloisius Ratzinger was born on 16 April, holy saturday, 1927, at Schulstraße 11, at 8:30 in the morning in his parents' home. He was baptised the same day. He is the third and youngest child of Joseph Ratzinger,., a police officer, and Maria ratzinger (née peintner his grand-uncle was the german priest-politician georg Ratzinger. His mother's family was originally from south Tyrol (now in Italy). 12 Pope benedict's elder brother, georg Ratzinger, is a catholic priest and is the former director of the regensburger Domspatzen choir.
of many western countries. He views relativism 's denial of objective truth, and the denial of moral truths in particular, as the central problem of the 21st century. He taught the importance of both the catholic Church and an understanding of God's redemptive love. 7 Pope benedict also revived a number of traditions, including elevating the Tridentine mass to a more prominent position. 8 he strengthened the relationship between the catholic Church and art, promoted the use of Latin, 9 and reintroduced traditional papal garments, for which reason he was called "the pope of aesthetics". He has been described as "the main intellectual force in the Church" since the mid-1980s. 11 On 11 February 2013, benedict announced his resignation in a speech in Latin before the cardinals, citing a "lack of strength of mind and body" due to his advanced age.
In 1981, he was appointed Prefect of the. Congregation for the doctrine of the faith, one of the most important dicasteries of the, roman Curia. From 2002 until his election as Pope, he was also. Dean of the college of Cardinals. Prior to becoming Pope, he was "a major figure on the. Vatican stage for a quarter of a century he had an influence "second to none when it came to setting church priorities drinking and directions" as one of John paul ii's closest confidants. 4 he has lived in Rome since 1981.
Catholic encyclopedia: Glory, new advent
Pope benedict xvi latin : Benedictus xvi ; Italian : Benedetto xvi ; German : Benedikt xvi ; born, joseph Aloisius Ratzinger ; German pronunciation: jozɛf alɔʏziʊs ʁatsɪŋɐ ; ) served. Pope and sovereign of the, vatican City, state from 2005 until his resignation in thesis 2013. Benedict's election occurred in the 2005 papal conclave that followed the death. The vatican announced his post-papal title as ". Pope Emeritus " shortly after his resignation. 2 3, ordained as a priest in 1951 in his native, bavaria, ratzinger had established himself as a highly regarded university theologian by the late 1950s and was appointed a full professor in 1958. After a long career as an academic and professor of theology at several German universities, he was appointed. Archbishop of Munich and Freising and, cardinal by, pope paul vi in 1977, an unusual promotion for someone with little pastoral experience.